Unit 2: Cells and Cell Processes


Students will know...

  • Interactions of subcellular structures, including a repertory of eukaryotic organelles possessing specialized functions, provide essential cellular functions and activities.
  • Interactions between external stimuli and gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues, and organs.
  • Interactions between cells affect the fitness of the organism.
  • Cell communication involves processes resulting from evolution that are shared common features.
  • Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.
  • Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response.
  • Programmed cell death (apoptosis) plays a role in development and differentiation, allows molecules to be reused, and helps maintain homeostasis within a biological system.
  • Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure.
  • Growth and homeostasis are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes.
  • Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions.
  • All biological systems from cells to populations, communities and ecosystems are altered by complex biotic and abiotic interactions.
  • Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their homeostasis.
  • Cell communication involves processes resulting from evolution that are shared common features.
  • Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.
  • Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response.

Students will be able to…
  • Justify the selection of data relevant to the question of what types of molecules will an animal, plant or bacterium take up as necessary building blocks and excrete as waste products.
  • Graphically represent or quantitatively model relationships that exist when organisms exchange molecules with the environment and build new molecules to maintain organization.
  • Articulate the role of programmed cell death in development and differentiation, the reuse of molecules and the maintenance of homeostasis.
  • Pose scientific questions about the properties of cell membranes and selective permeability based on molecular structure.
  • Construct models that connect the movement of molecules to cellular structure and function.
  • Use representations and models to analyze situations or solve problems qualitatively and quantitatively to demonstrate that homeostasis is maintained by the active movement of molecules across membranes.
  • Explain how internal membranes and cell organelles contribute to cell functions.
  • Use representations and models to describe how eukaryotic cells use internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions.
  • Describe how the basic chemical processes by which cells communicate are shared across evolutionary lines.
  • Generate scientific questions involving cell communication as it relates to the process of evolution.
  • Describe the chemical processes by which cells communicate.
  • Construct explanations of cell communication through direct contact with each other or through chemical signaling. (ie. immune system)
  • Create representations that depict the cell’s ability to communicate with other cells by direct contact or chemical signaling (ie. neurotransmitters)
  • Create a model to describe links between signal reception and cellular responses across multiple representations.
  • Describe signal reception with cellular response.
  • Justify claims with evidence that errors in normal signal transduction may alter cellular response. (ie. diabetes)
  • Articulate a model of the effects of errors in normal signal transduction on cellular response. (ie. antihistamines or birth control pills)

  • If you need to review prokaryotic cells, here is the powerpoint presentation.


  • And how big are cells?
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/

  • Watch this video about cell size and compartmentalization.



  • Take a look inside cells
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/insideacell/

  • Video is a good introduction to the cell membrane.


  • Cell Membrane Animation


  • A most amazing animation entitled "The Inner Life of the Cell" This deserves to be watched more than once!!!!


  • Read about membrane proteins below. Concentrate on the structure-function connection.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21570/

  • Below are two videos on transport across the cell membrane. Both of these people are masters of explaining difficult topics and both have a series of biology videos, See which style is most helpful to you!A good source for review.

Bozemann Videos

Khan Academy Videos


  • Here is an interactive approach to studying how materials move across the membrane.
http://bbosak.edu.glogster.com/movement-through-the-membrane-/

  • This is the cell membrane video I tried to show you in class. It is very short!


  • This is the powerpoint on Water Potential



  • Use the following on-line tutorials to help you understand diffusion and osmosis
http:mw.concord.org/modeler/ Download tutorial on diffusion
http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab1/intro.html