Plantsvenus fly trap Pictures, Images and Photos

Alternation of generations
Diploid to haploid to diploid:
  1. Most plants display alternations of generations, a life cycle that passes alternately through diploid and haploid stages.
    1. The haploid stage is generated by meiosis.
    2. The diploid stage is generated by fertilization.

  • Both haploid and diploid mitosis:
    1. In plants, both the diploid and haploid stages are capable of undergoing mitosis.
      1. These stages are called the sporophyte and gametophyte, respectively.

  • Separate generations:
    1. A semantic consequence of both the diploid and haploid stages undergoing mitosis is that they are considered separate generations.
      1. Thus, one speaks of alternating sporophyte and gametophyte generations, or, for short, simply alternation of generations.
  • Gametophyte ["gamete plant"]The gametophyteis the plant haploid generation.
    1. In ancestral and primitive plants (e.g., green algae and mosses, respectively) the gametophyte generation is an actual, freeliving, haploid plant which produces gametes by mitosis.
    2. Conspicuous plant:
      1. In fact, the gametophytegeneration in primitive plants is actually the dominant plant observed ("the conspicuous organism").
      2. This contrasts greatly with the dominant, less primitive plants found today in which the diploid (sporophyte) generation is dominant.
      3. The gametophyte generation in these (less primative) plants consists of only a few cells protected and nourished by the sporophyte generation (i.e., the gametophyteare not freeliving in gymnosperms and angiosperms).
      4. In the sophisticated seed-bearing plants the "haploid spores divide by mitosis and produce tiny haploid plants that will form gametes, and hence, these little individuals are called gametophytes, or gamete-producing plants. The miniature female gametophyte consists of just seven cells, which are totally dependent on the much larger diploid sporophyte for support. One of these cells is the egg, the female gamete. The male gametophyte is the pollen grain; it contains just three cells when mature, including two sperm, the male gametes." (p. 798, Postlethwait and Hopson, 1995)
  • Sporophyte
    1. Diploid generation:
    2. The sporophyteis the plant diploid generation.
      1. In all plants it is the sporophyte generation which generates the haploid generation (spores) via meiosis.

  • Conspicuous plant:
    1. In some primitive plants both the gametophyte and the sporophytecan serve as conspicuous organisms.
      1. In modern land plants (vascular plants) the sporophyteis the conspicuous organism.
      2. In other words, the land plants we see around us represent the diploid, sporophytegeneration of these plants.
      3. In primitive plants (bryophytes particularly) the sporophyte often is not free living and must be nourished by the gametophyte. This is essentially the opposite situation from that observed among the gymno- and angiosperms.

  • Spores give rise to gametes:
      1. The haploid products of sporophyte cell meiosis are considered sporesbecause they are capable of undergoing and, indeed, do undergo mitosis prior to the occurrence of fertilization.
      2. It is only the final products of these mitotic divisions which are considered the plant gametes.
      3. Hence, it is the haploid gametophyte generation which, technically, gives rise to the gametes, i.e., the cells which do the actual fusing to effect fertilization.


. Structure and Function of Plants (16%)
  1. Reproduction, growth, and development
  2. Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations
  3. Response to the environment

RP. There are several classes for plants. Below is a chart that details the different classes of plants as well as their characteristics

JFMcL. Hormones are chemical messengers, produced in one part of the organism that affects a different part. The major types and functions of these hormones are commonly confused. Study the chart below, especially highlighted words.

Hormones and Their Functions in Plant Growth

Plant Hormone
Where They are Found
Plant Hormones Function
This hormone is present in the seed embryo, young leaves and apical buds meristem.
  • Stimulation of cell elongation; cell division in cambium, differentiation of phloem and xylem, root initiation on stem cuttings, lateral root development in tissue culture. This is responsible for growth towards light.
Cytokinins are synthesized in roots and then transported to other plant parts
  • Stimulation of cell division, growth of lateral buds and apical dominance
Ethylene is present in the tissues of ripening fruits, nodes of stems, senescent leaves and flowers
  • Flower and leaf senescence stimulation
  • Fruit ripening is stimulated by ethylene
Abscisic Acid
Absicisic acid is found mostly near leaves, stems, unripe fruit
  • Stimulation of closing of stomata
  • Inhibition of shoot growth
The gibberellins are present in the meristems of apical buds and roots, young leaves, embryo
  • Stimulates stem elongation
  • Gibberellin can lead to development of seedless fruits
These are the different plant responses to a certain stimuli I have summarized for a quick review.
A tropism is a plant growth response from hormones that results in the plant growing either toward or away from a stimulus
Phototropism is the growth of a shoot in a certain direction in response to light
Photoperiodism is a physiological response to a photoperiod (the relative lengths of night and day). It controls when plants will flower. (the length of the night is the critical factor)
Gravitropism is a plant’s response to gravity
Thigmotropism is directional growth in a plant as a response to a touch

Adding to above, photoperiodism results in three different types of plants.
Short-day plants: require a period of continuous darkness longer than a critical period in order to flower. These plants flower in early spring or fall. Short-day plants are actually long-night plants; that is, what the plant measures is the length of the night.
Long-day plants: flower only if a period of continuous darkness was shorter than a critical period. They often flower in the late spring or early summer. Long-day plants are actually short-night plants.
Day-neutral plants can flower in days of any length.

(Bio review book)

Photoperiodism is caused due to phytochrome responses.
The phytochrome molecule is the photoreceptor for red light responses. It exists in two forms, Pr and Pfr:
external image pr-pfr.gif
The Pr form:
  • Absorbs at a peak of 666 nm
  • Is the form synthesized in dark-grown seedlings.
  • When Pr absorbs red light, it is converted to the Pfr form.
The Pfr form:
  • Absorbs at a peak of 730 nm
  • The Pfr form is the active form that initiates biological responses
  • When Pfr absorbs far red light, it is converted to the Pr form
  • Pfr can also spontaneously revert to the Pr form in the dark over time = dark reversion; Pfr is also susceptible to proteinases.
  • Pfr absorbs some red light, so in red light, there is a balance of 85% Pfr and 15% Pr
  • Pr absorbs very little far red light, so in far red light, there is a balance of 97% Pr to 3% P

Sorry that this is just another link to click but I think the information is really helpful if you're still confused about the plant hormones or just want to learn a bit more on the topic.


external image leafstru.gif
You can use this picture to study the structure of the leaf, but i also found it very useful to studying their functions in relationship to their location.

Alternation of Generations
Plants reproduce by the alteration of generations, switching between diploid and haploid versions of themselves. This method of reproduction allowed plants to colonize land. Below is an video that explains the process in mosses. Mosses are different than other plants because they spend most of their reproductive cycle in the gametophyte generation.

I never fully understood this process. This video helped me to understand not only the process, but also some of the anatomical differences between the male and female plant structures.

EGR - The different types of plant tissues all seem really similar to each other, at least in the names! The cell types composing plant tissues are collenchyma, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (all simple tissues), and the complex tissues, xylem and phloem. I tried to come up with some mnemonic devices to help us all remember these (hopefully), as well as some brief notes to go along with them.

collenchyma - cell walls of irregular thickness, flexible support; Collenchyma has two L's just like iRRegular, and collen means flexible, to remember the collen portion try to remember how irregular the thicknesses can be
parenchyma - cell walls of very thin thickness to facilitate movement of particles through cell; PARenchyma are thin so the PARticles can pass through easily
sclerenchyma - very thick cell walls (primary and secondary cell walls made of lignin), dead at maturity, rigid support;Sclerenchyma should make you think of rigidness because of the sclera portion, which can be associated with sclerosis (the hardening of structures)
xylem - tracheids and vessels, modified sclerenchyma, transport H20;Vessels in the heart pump blood, which is a liquid like water, just like in the xylem, and vessels are a form of the xylem
phloem - sieve tubes and companion cells, transport nutrients; The nutrients don't easily PHLOE through the sieves

I know the mnemonic devices were a bit of a stretch but hopefully they are odd enough to remember a bit of information!

JFMcL Whatever helps you remember something is great! But why do they work?

Mnemonics rely on associations between easy-to-remember constructs which can be related back to the data that are to be remembered. This is based on the observation that the human mind much more easily remembers spatial, personal, surprising, physical, sexual, humorous, or otherwise meaningful information, as compared to retrieving arbitrary sequences

SS. Root Structure (just some key terms and their locations)
Root Cap: protects the apical meristem
Apical Meristem: produces the new root cells
Roots Hairs: increase surface area for absorption
Stele: vascular cylinder(Xylem/Phloem)
Pericycle: lateral roots originate from here and it is the outermost cell layer of the vascular cylinder
this website has some pretty good pictures, and explains the tissues in relatively good detail.

JFMcL Some other important topics to add would be the functions of the different types of cells and also the mechanisms by which water and sugars are transported.

Angiosperm Reproduction:
I found this website, it summarizes chapter 38

I had trouble remembering what each type of tissue was used for and where each was located. This is a helpful summary of the three basic types of tissue. The website I found it on is very helpful for all topics. It has a lot of topic outlines, practice quizzes, etc. I found it very helpful in reviewing concepts I was unclear about.
  • Plant organs are composed of three tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground.
  • The dermal tissue is the outer covering.
  • In nonwoody plants, it is a single layer of tightly packed cells, or epidermis, that covers and protects all young parts of the plant.
  • The epidermis has other specialized characteristics consistent with the function of the organ it covers.
    • For example, the root hairs are extensions of epidermal cells near the tips of the roots.
    • The epidermis of leaves and most stems secretes a waxy coating, the cuticle, which helps the aerial parts of the plant retain water.

  • In woody plants, protective tissues called periderm replace the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots.
  • Vascular tissue, continuous throughout the plant, is involved in the transport of materials between roots and shoots.
    • Xylem conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots into the shoots.
    • Phloem transports food made in mature leaves to the roots; to nonphotosynthetic parts of the shoot system; and to sites of growth, such as developing leaves and fruits.
    • The vascular tissue of a root or stem is called the stele.
      • In angiosperms, the vascular tissue of the root forms a solid central vascular cylinder, while stems and leaves have vascular bundles, strands consisting of xylem and phloem.

  • Ground tissue is tissue that is neither dermal tissue nor vascular tissue.
    • In eudicot stems, ground tissue is divided into pith, internal to vascular tissue, and cortex, external to the vascular tissue.
    • The functions of ground tissue include photosynthesis, storage, and support.
    • For example, the cortex of a eudicot stem typically consists of both fleshy storage cells and thick-walled support cells.

LJ: I tend to get monocots and dicots confused.
I found these two charts helpful:

Embryo with single cotyledon
Embryo with two cotyledons
Pollen with single furrow or pore
Pollen with three furrows or pores
Flower parts in multiples of three
Flower parts in multiples of four or five
Major leaf veins parallel
Major leaf veins reticulated
Stem vacular bundles scattered
Stem vascular bundles in a ring
Roots are adventitious
Roots develop from radicle
Secondary growth absent
Secondary growth often present


Distinguishing between the male and female segments of a flower always confused me.
The Stamen is the male organs and the pistil is the female (also called carpel)
external image fig1.gifexternal image flower-diagram.jpg

Movement of Water Through a Plant.

external image 5605-004-CFE4B012.gif

1) The water will diffuse into the root hairs through osmosis.

2) Then, there are three different pathways that the water can take when traveling to the endodermis:

external image pathways.gif

3) The water enters the xylem vessel. Because the water particles are polar, they form a chain through the process of cohesion.

4) The particles adhere to the walls of the xylem and rise up to the leaves. They are being pushed by all the water particles entering the xylem from the roots. They are also being pulled by the leaves because the leaves are constantly losing water through the processes of transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration.


This diagram is helpful because it labels the parts of the flower & shows the life cycle of the angiosperm clearly. It is important to realize which parts are used in reproduction and which parts are not.It also includes the topic of double fertilization which I thought was important to understand. The diagram may be a little blurry on here but you can click on the link to see it better.

Todays conversation about the evolution of plants made me realize that I needed to brush up on the topic....
This site provides a great summary of parts of the plant, how they evolved, and different types of plants!

JFMcL. This is an excellent explanation of plant evolution, but also a good example to review the concept of shared ancestral vs.derived characteristics. Remember these atre used to determine evolutionary relationships and develop a phylogenetic tree using cladistics.


Below is a summary of different adaptations that have enabled flowering plants to overcome problems associated with life on land. This is very important as it traces different evolutionary changes and important structures and functions associated with land plants today.

  • Many adaptations of flowering plants have enabled them to not depend on water for fertilization
    • Pollination brings both gametes together
    • Production of male gametophytes, pollen grains, can be carried long distances by wind or animals to fertilize eggs
    • Sperm of flowering plants have direct access to the egg through the pollen tube
    • Zygotes develop into embryos with a food supply and a protective coat known as a seed
  • Development of vascular tissue gave support to the plant body due to absence of an aquatic environment
    • Vascular tissue strengthened with ligin
    • Stems are strong to grow strong against gravity
    • Roots anchor the plant
    • Cambium provides secondary thickening
    • Collenchyma and sclerenchyma cells have tough, rigid cell walls to support the plant
  • Life on land gave rise to a problem of drying out
    • Cuticle is a waxy outer-covering on the plant that helps the plant from drying out
    • Stomata control the loss of water
    • The vascular tissue of the xylem transports water from roots throughout the whole plant
    • Root hairs increase surface area for increased absorption of water
anyone feel free to add to this if you can think of anything else

When looking over the plant unit, I noticed I needed to review how sugars are transported in the phloem.
Plants move sugars from a sugar source (which is an organ that is a net producer of sugar like the leaves) to a sugar sink (an organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar), by the process of translocation.
In translocation...
  1. Sucrose is loaded into sieve tubes at the source when proton pumps create an electrochemical gradient. This decreases water potential and causes the uptake of water which creates positive pressure
  2. The pressure os relieved at the sugar sink by the unloading of sucrose followed by the loss of water
-review book
This diagram also helped me get a further understanding of this topic

external image image023.jpg


Comparison chart Phloem vs. Xylem

Roots, stems and leaves
Roots, stems and leaves
Additional Functions:
Forms vascular bundles with xylem
Forms vascular bundles with phloem and gives mechanical strength to plant due to presence of lignified cells.
Sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma, bast fibers, intermediary cells
Tracheids, vessel elements, xylem parenchyma, xylem sclerenchyma
Nature of tissue:
Living tissue
Non living tissue at maturity
Unidirectional (upward)
Transportation of food and nutrients from leaves to storage organs and growing parts of plant.
Water and mineral transport from roots to aerial parts of the plant.
Tubular with soft walled cells
Tubular with hard walled cells
Moves up or down the plant's stem from "source to sink"
Moves up the plant's stem

external image 23644.nfg001.jpg
Yay for bryophytes! When I was looking this over, I realized that I needed to review this cycle as it differs from the more complex land plants.

JJS As one of the most primitive kinds of terrestrial plant, the tracheophyte reproductive cycle is very important. This animation shows each event, step by step.

I find it difficult to remember which specific cells are xylem cells and which are phloem cells.
XYLEM: tracheids and vessel elements. You can remember this because "vessels" carry water, like ships are vessels that travel on water.
PHLOEM: sieve-tube members and companion cells. You can remember this because phloem carries "food" and nutrients, and you use a sieve when cooking, and you often eat food with companions.
(sorry that these are kind of far-fetched, but things like this always help me remember information...)
external image image004.jpgexternal image transfercs.gif

So i was going through the essay test and primary and secondary growth came up and i had only a rough idea of what it is so i looked it up. I found this very simplified plant structure website but it covers all the major topics and its easy to read so check it out!
As for the difference between primary and secondary growth...

Primary growth of stem: Primary growth occurs only in apical meristems which are located at the tips of the stems and roots. Meristems in stems are protected by newly formed leaves within a bud .
Axillary buds : usually dormant in the axes of mature leaves develop into branches
Herbaceous stems (nonwoody ): Herbaceous stems are produced by primary growth. The outermost tissue is epidermis and is covered by waxy cuticle to prevent water loss. The vascular tissue is found in bundles that are arranged in a ring (dicots) or scattered (monocots).

Secondary Growth of Stems: Secondary growth occurs in plants that live > 1 year. Primary growth occurs for a short distance behind the apical meristem, then secondary growth occurs.It begins with the formation of a vascular cambium and a cork cambium . Cell division toward the inside and outside form xylem and phloem. Seasonal climates produces growth rings because cells grow faster and are larger in the spring than later in the growing season.
Vascular cambium : Initially, vascular cambium is found between the xylem and phloem in the vascular bundles of dicots. After one years growth, it joins to form a continuous ring.
Cork cambium: Cortex cells beneath the epidermis produce the cork cambium. The cork cambium produces cork . Cork is waterproof because the cell walls are impregnated with of suberin . Pockets of cells lack suberin. These are called lenticels and function to allow gas exchange. Cork replaces the epidermis on woody stems and roots.
Bark: The bark of trees consists of cork, cork cambium, cortex, and phloem.

I'm working on the plant essays now, and I found myself having trouble remembering the regulatory mechanisms for flowering in plants.
Photoperiodism controls when plants will flower. It is a physiological response to a photoperiod, which is the relative lengths of night and day.
  • short-day (long night) plants: require a time span longer than a certain critical period of darkness in order to flower. they usually flower in early spring or fall. if interrupted by a bright flash of light, they will not flower
  • long-day (short night) plants: only flower if there is a period of continuous darkness shorter than a critical period.
  • day-neutral plants: flower in days/nights of any length
summarized from the review book.

I was confused about the layout of the vascular cambium and cork cambium in relation to one another. This picture also helped me remember that the periderm consists of the cork cambium and cork. Overall, this is a good review of the structure of woody dicot stems.
external image treetrunk.jpg

This website and simplified diagram give a good explanation on the difference between c3 and c4 plants.
external image taub_figure2_ksm.jpg


I have trouble differentiating between the different organs of monocots and dicots so this diagram really helps show the differences in both the seed and grown of each
I can say for myself that plants are a topic that I am struggling a lot on. One of the them being the evolution of plants. This site explains plant evolution from bryophytes to vascular plants to angiosperms and gymnosperms. It also includes a chart explaining the adaptations plants need in order to survive on land.
Here it is

I know someone already posted about this but it really helped me understand angiosperm reproduction.

Angiosperm Life Cycle

Life Cycle Diagram
Life Cycle Diagram

Angiosperms have alternation of generations with the 2n sporophyte being the dominant generation. The anthers, which are the equivalent of microsporangia, produce microspores by meiosis, and the microspores develop into male gametophytes (= pollen).
The ovaries, which are the equivalent of megasporangia, produce megaspores which grow into female gametophytes, each of which then produces an egg.
Note that technically the “sex organs” of a plant aren’t because they produce spores (micro- or mega-) which turn into male or female gametophytes. The gametophytes bear the true sex organs, such as they are, and are where eggs or sperm are actually produced.
By some means (wind or an animal pollinator), the pollen is transferred to the stigma of the pistil, and a pollen tube grows down into the ovary. Eventually, two sperm nuclei travel down the pollen tube. Pollination is the transfer of the male gametophyte (pollen) to the stigma of the female, while fertilization is when the sperm nucleus and egg nucleus unite
Angiosperms have an unusual thing called double fertilization. When the sperm nuclei reach the female gametophyte, one sperm nucleus and the egg cell unite to form a new 2n zygote (which grows into an embryo). The other sperm nucleus and two nuclei from the female gametophyte join to form 3n endosperm which often serves as food for the embryo.
The embryo sporophyte consists of:

Types of Seeds
Types of Seeds

  1. one or two nutrient-storage areas called cotyledons which are in contact with (and absorb nutrients from) the 3n endosperm. Seeds of some species store their nutrients primarily in the endosperm, having very small cotyledon(s), while others have most of their nutrients stored in their cotyledons and the endosperm is very small.
  2. the epicotyl (epi = upon, over), which is the region above the cotyledon(s), and which will become the stem and leaves,
  3. the hypocotyl (hypo

under, beneath), which is the region under the cotyledon(s). The lower end of the hypocotyl, which becomes the root system, is called the radicle (radix

root) and will become the roots.
In general, monocots tend to store food in their endosperms, and nutrients are transferred to the cotyledon only as needed. In contrast, many (not all) dicots tend to store food in their cotyledons with the endosperm being reduced to a papery coating around the embryo.

I found this at,

When going through my quizzes and test I realized I always get confused on the differences between Parenchyma, Collenchyma, and Sclerenchyma cells. This diagram really helped to understand the differences between them.

external image 11bio47.GIF

I believe that these terms are extremely important to know, as they are mainframe vocabulary for the section.
Here are the key terms of plant biology in summary.
You can quiz yourself on the below listed terms and play games with the terms at:
Quizlet Plant Biology Review

Happy Studying!



external image spacer.MzUH.gifApical Dominance
external image spacer.MzUH.gifConcentration of growth at the tip of a plant shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifSieve Tube Members
external image spacer.MzUH.gifCells in the phloem tissue that lack a nucleus, but are long and cylindrical for conducting sugar water.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifCompanion Cells
external image spacer.MzUH.gifPhloem cells. Surround sieve tube elements to aid transport.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifPith
external image spacer.MzUH.gifsoft spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants
external image spacer.MzUH.gifApical Meristems
external image spacer.MzUH.gifEmbryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifPrimary Growth
external image spacer.MzUH.giftype of plant growth that occurs at the tips of roots and shoots
external image spacer.MzUH.gifSecondary Growth
external image spacer.MzUH.gifpattern of plant growth in which stems increase in width
external image spacer.MzUH.gifLateral
external image spacer.MzUH.gifA meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifEndodermis
external image spacer.MzUH.gifThe innermost layer of the cortex in plant roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the vascular cylinder.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifStomata
external image spacer.MzUH.gifthe small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
external image spacer.MzUH.gifGuard Cells
external image spacer.MzUH.gifThe two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifVascular Cambium
external image spacer.MzUH.giflateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of the stem over time
external image spacer.MzUH.gifCork Cambium
external image spacer.MzUH.giflateral meristematic tissue that produces the outer covering of stems
external image spacer.MzUH.gifSporophyte
external image spacer.MzUH.gifthe spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
external image spacer.MzUH.gifGametophyte
external image spacer.MzUH.gifhaploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism, the gamete-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
external image spacer.MzUH.gifSpores
external image spacer.MzUH.gifsingle-celled reproductive bodies highly resistant to cold and heat damage; capable of new organisms
external image spacer.MzUH.gifArchegonium
external image spacer.MzUH.gifa female sex organ occurring in mosses, ferns, and most gymnosperms
external image spacer.MzUH.gifAnteridia
external image spacer.MzUH.gifMale reproductive structure in mosses and liverworts, male reproductive sturcutre that is a tny capsule containing sperm
external image spacer.MzUH.gifEndosperm
external image spacer.MzUH.gifnutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants
external image spacer.MzUH.gifDouble Fertilization
external image spacer.MzUH.gifA mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifOvary
external image spacer.MzUH.gifthe organ that bears the ovules of a flower
external image spacer.MzUH.gifOvule
external image spacer.MzUH.gifa small body that contains the female germ cell of a plant
external image spacer.MzUH.gifPlasmodesmota
external image spacer.MzUH.gifchannels b/w cell wall that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells
external image spacer.MzUH.gifSynergids
external image spacer.MzUH.giftwo cells that flank the egg cell and function in the attraction and guidance of the pollen tube to the embryo sac
external image spacer.MzUH.gifPolar Nuclei
external image spacer.MzUH.gif2 nuclei, within the same cell, created from the mitotic division of the megaspore during angiosperm reproduction; unite in the ovule to form a fusion nucleus, which gives rise to endosperm when fertilized
external image spacer.MzUH.gifAntipodal Cells
external image spacer.MzUH.gifA group of cells, situated at the opposite end to the micropyle, in the mature embryo sac of flowering plants. They are very large and have highly endopolyploid nuclei.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifTonoplast
external image spacer.MzUH.gifA membrane that encloses the central vacuole in a plant cell, separating the cytosol from the vacuolar contents, called cell sap; also known as the vacuolar membrane.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifApoplast
external image spacer.MzUH.gifIn plants, the continuum of cell walls plus the extracellular spaces.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifSymplast
external image spacer.MzUH.gifSystem of transport within a plant consisting of openings in cell walls called plasmodesmata
external image spacer.MzUH.gifBulk Flow
external image spacer.MzUH.gifThe movement of water due to a difference in pressure between two locations.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifCasparian Strip
external image spacer.MzUH.gifwaterproof strip that surrounds plant endodermis cells
external image spacer.MzUH.gifCircadian Rhythms
external image spacer.MzUH.gifThe 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifPhloem Loading
external image spacer.MzUH.gifthe active transport of sucrose into a sieve tube element
external image spacer.MzUH.gifTracheids
external image spacer.MzUH.gifA water-conducting and supportive element of xylem composed of long, thin cells with tapered ends and walls hardened with lignin.
external image spacer.MzUH.gifVessels
external image spacer.MzUH.gifContinuous water-conducting micropipes found in most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants.

I did not know that some plants, such as mistletoe, are photosynthetic but instead parasitic. They tap into the host plant's vascular system.
Epiphytes are not parasitic but just grow on the surfaces of other plants instead off the soil. Many orchids grow as epiphytes.
Carnivorous plants are photosynthetic, but they get some nitrogen and other minerals by digesting small animals. They are commonly found in nitrogen-poor soil, such as in bogs.
These are all symbiotic relationships that are not mutualistic.
(bio review book)


I have always been confused by the two of these. This chart makes it very simple!
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