Animal Systems Mighty Pictures, Images and Photos


Topics:

Structure and Function of Animals (16%)
  1. Reproduction, growth, and development
  2. Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations
  3. Response to the environment

JFMcL. The functions of the female sex hormones in controlling the menstrual cycle are important to understand and are an excellent example of negative feedback control. The hypothalamus produces releasing hormones which stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to produce FSH and LH. The FSH stimulates the mmaturation of the follicle; LH triggers ovulation. As the follicle enlarges, estrogen is produced which causes the endometrial lining to thicken. High levels of progesterone produced by the corpus luteum act as a negative feedback mechanism to shut down the production of FSH so no further eggs mature. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum disintegrates and the levels of progesterone drop. This causes the endometrial lining to be shed. This diagram illustrates the relationship between the hormones.

external image 252558-1336968-252928-1453260.jpg
http://sitamol.net/forum/showthread.php?t=37158

This diagram illustrates the changes that occur in the endometrial and ovarian cycles.

external image MMHE_22_241_03_eps.gif
http://www.merckmanuals.com/media/home/figures/MMHE_22_241_03_eps.gif


ELB
Initially, I was confused about the steps that take place in the immune system in order to trigger a response. I found this video that does a good job of explaining how humoral immunity works. It goes in depth to show how each step influences the next.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L32Na8fGjzA&sns=em

SK
I have never fully understood the impulse transmissions of a neuron. Below is my explanation:

external image action-potential1.jpg

1) Resting Potential: The membrane potential from voltage, or difference in electrical charge due to ions, on a resting neuron. Typically -60 to -80 mV. The negative sign indicates the outside of the neuron is positive when compared to the inside, which is negative. The inside of the neuron contains mostly K+ and A-, but also a small amount of Na+ and Cl-. The extracellular space contains the opposite: mostly Na+ and Cl- with a small amount of K+. The reason for this is that the ion channels (specifically the Sodium-Potassium [Na out, K in] ion pump, which move 3 sodium and 2 potassium,) are "leaky." The electrical charge of the ions results in potential energy with a net movement of positive or negative charged particles will generate a voltage or potential across the membrane. At rest, there are many open K+ channels leading into the neuron and very few open Na+ leading out.
2) Action Potential - The nervous system is entirely dependent on the gated ion channels (channels which open/close in response to a stimulus.) When exporting K ion channels which are closed during resting potential open, hyperpolarization, or the increase in the magnitude of membrane potential (negative,) occurs. Hyperpolarization generally occurs when positive ions move out (K+ leaves) or negative ions flow in (Cl-, A-, etc.) This causes the membrane potential to move negatively away from zero, or a more negative charge. Other ion channels cause depolarization, or the reduction in membrane potential. "Reduction" here is the key word, as the difference in charges between the intra- and extracellular spaces decreases. This means the inside charge of the neuron increases, closer to zero.
Hyper- and depolarization are considered graded potentials, as the greater strength of the stimulus, the greater the change in membrane potential.
Voltage-gated ion channels (VGIC) are the specific types of ion channels which allow the nervous system to function. VGIC open or close in response to a change in the membrane potential. If voltage-gated sodium ion channels are opened, the resulting flow of Na+ ions cause depolarization (as explained above.) However, because these channels are voltage-gated, the change in membrane potential has a cascading effect on the rest of the channels. This is similar to positive feedback, as the more voltage-gated sodium ion channels are opened the higher the (positive) change in membrane potential, which causes a stronger response to the rest of the voltage-gated ion channels. This cascade can cause a massive change in membrane voltage, known as an action potential. The necessary change, or rather the eventual value which needs to be exceeded, in membrane potential is called a threshold. Action potentials initiate an all-or-none response, as once an action potential has started it cannot be stopped midway.
Two types of VGIC exist in neurons, sodium and potassium. They respond independently and sequentially. As discussed above, the sodium VGIC initiate the action potential and thus open first. The opening of sodium VGIC is shown as the positive slope part of the parabola in the picture above. As the action potential proceeds across the neural membrane, it closes the sodium channels by causing a loop of the channel protein to fold and block the entryway into the neuron thus blocking further "action." These channels remain closed and blocked until resting potential is reached (and thus closing the channels, causing them to unfold.) Potassium VGIC open more slowly. When they open, K+ rapidly leaves the cell, causing the extracellular space of the neuron to become more positive than the inside (remember that electrical charge changes from net movement of ions.) As resting potential is reached the sodium-potassium pumps begin to function, as do some of the blocked and folded sodium VGIC, returning the neuron to its resting (and "ready") potential. Once returned to their normal state, the sodium VGIC go through what is called a refractory period, or a "downtime," where a second action potential may be initiated. This ensures the signal always travels down the cell, from cell body to synaptic terminals.


external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ-Xe-PmEsGn_Vms7cmG0tRWudwLvLPGP51wXTXS2OeQPZWTRhBVQ

Summarized from the book.


Tissues Cells group together in the body to form tissues - a collection of similar cells that group together to perform a specialized function. There are 4 primary tissue types in the human body: epithelialtissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue.


  1. Epithelial Tissue- The cells of epithelial tissue pack tightly together and form continuous sheets that serve as linings in different parts of the body. Epithelial tissue serve as membranes lining organs and helping to keep the body's organs separate, in place and protected. Some examples of epithelial tissue are the outer layer of the skin, the inside of the mouth and stomach, and the tissue surrounding the body's organs.
  2. Connective Tissue- There are many types of connective tissue in the body. Generally speaking, connective tissue adds support and structure to the body. Most types of connective tissue contain fibrous strands of the protein collagen that add strength to connective tissue. Some examples of connective tissue include the inner layers of skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone and fat tissue. In addition to these more recognizable forms of connective tissue, blood is also considered a form of connective tissue.
  3. Muscle Tissue- Muscle tissue is a specialized tissue that can contract. Muscle tissue contains the specialized proteins actin and myosin that slide past one another and allow movement. Examples of muscle tissue are contained in the muscles throughout your body.
  4. Nerve Tissue - Nerve tissue contains two types of cells: neurons and glial cells. Nerve tissue has the ability to generate and conduct electrical signals in the body. These electrical messages are managed by nerve tissue in the brain and transmitted down the spinal cord to the body.

~ JM

Tissues (continued)

There are different terms used to describe the structure of tissue that can be found throughout organisms.

Epithelium-
The cellular covering of internal and external body surfaces, including the lining of vessels and small cavities. It consists of cells joined by small amounts of cementing substances and is classified according to the number of layers and the shape of the cells.
Simple- A single layer of cells
Stratified- When there is more than one layer of cells
Pseudostratified-A single layer of cells that can be mistaken as stratified cells.
Squamous-
Thin, flat cells found in layers or sheets covering surfaces such as skin and the linings of Blood Vessels and Esophagus
Columnar-Long, skinny cells that line organs with thick walls such as the Uterus
Cuboidal-Cube shaped cells that are mainly found in organs that either secrete or absorb materials (Intestine, endocrine hormones, liver, etc.)

- MSL





Here are some diagrams that explain what occurs during muscle contraction.

This diagram shows the chemical processes that occur during contraction.
Muscle contraction doesn't officially begin until ACh is released by a signaling neuron.

external image API%20St24.jpg

http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/notes/api%20notes%20j%20%20muscle%20contraction.htm
(this link is where I got the diagram above, but it also does a great job describing the full process that occurs during muscle contraction.)



This diagram shows the three possible states that a muscle could be in.


Sliding-Filament_Theory.jpg

It is important to know that the model generally used to describe muscle contraction is known as the Sliding Filament Model. A way to remember the sliding filament model is by placing your fingers between each other and sliding your hands away from and closer to each other.

Here is a table that compares the three different types of muscle (Cardiac, Smooth, and Skeletal):
external image Comparison%20of%20the%20Different%20Types%20of%20Muscle.jpg
http://encyclopedia.lubopitko-bg.com/MuscularSystem.html

-MSL

SRF
BloodFlowPhysiology.gif

http://www.abacon.com/dia/exphys/one.html

JFMcL. And here is an entertaining way to remember circulation through the heart!

WJH
I just want to add on to the information above about the flow of blood through the heart. It is critical that to know the steps that blood flows through because I noticed that there was a question about it on the Bio SAT Subject test, one of the diagnostic tests, and on the test for this chapter.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/map-human-heart.html
This is an interactive video that really helped me understand how blood flows through the heart. It's the same website that we used to do that fossil lab a while back.


JM:
Two hormones are responsible for controlling the concentration of glucose in the blood. These are insulin and glucagon.
external image imgRI-blood-sugar-levels.gif
http://www.biology-online.org/4/3_blood_sugar.htm

Blood Sugar Regulation
Blood Sugar Regulation

LJ: I keep forgetting the functions of the hormones. This chart is a helpful overview of the pituitary hormones (from
http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/overview.html)


Hormone
Major target organ(s)
Major Physiologic Effects
Anterior
Pituitary
Growth hormone
Liver, adipose tissue
Promotes growth (indirectly), control of protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Thyroid gland
Stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Adrenal gland (cortex)
Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids
Prolactin
Mammary gland
Milk production
Luteinizing hormone
Ovary and testis
Control of reproductive function
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Ovary and testis
Control of reproductive function
Posterior
Pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone
Kidney
Conservation of body water
Oxytocin
Ovary and testis
Stimulates milk ejection and uterine contractions
MFT
I have found that studying organized charts & tables can help to remember things, like the glands & which hormones go with them -

external image hor.jpg

EGR
I have noticed that there have been many test questions, in both the diagnostic tests, as well as the review packet tests on animal behavior. The majority of it seems to be self explanatory, although parts can be somewhat tricky. The parts that I have had a tough time remembering:

  • Ethology - the study of animal behavior
  • The two fundamental levels of analysis - proximate and ultimate
    • Proximate – effects of heredity on animal behavior, environmental interactions, motor-sensory mechanisms
    • Ultimate – origins of a behavior, changes of behavior over time, utility of behavior for species success (through reproduction)
  • Mating systems
    • Promiscuous – bonds between the two organisms are not strong
    • Monogamous – only one male and one female in the relationship
    • Polygamous – one individual that mate with many others
      • Polygyny – one male mating with many females
      • Polyandry – one female mating with many males

All of this information can be found in the review book, although I summarized it.

CCA
The stages of embryonic development reaaaaallly confuse me so if anyone else is the same hopefully this helps. SO MANY SIMILAR TERMS.

1. After fertilization, the zygote undergoes cleavage, a period of rapid mitotic cell division that partitions the cytoplasm of the cell into smaller cells called balstomeres, each of which has its own nucleus. Continued cleavage leads to a ball of cells called a morula, then a fluid-filled central cavity called the blastocoel forms within the morula to produce a blastula.
2. Gastrulation is a drastic rearrangement of the cells in the blastula to form a three-layered embryo with a primitive gut. Invagination begins at the blastospore. In gastrulation, three germ cell layers are produced: the ectoderm, the endoderm, and the mesoderm. The followeing structures result from each layer:
- Ectoderm: skin, nails, teeth, lens of the eye, and the nervous system
- Endoderm: epithelial linings of the digestive, respiratory, and excretory tract, the liver, and the pancreas
- Mesoderm: skeletal, muscular, excretory, circulatory, and reproductive systems, including blood bones, and muscle
3. Organogenesis is the development of the three germ layers into the rudiments of organs. Some characteristics of chordate development are:
the notochord is a stiff dorsal skeleton rod characteristic of all chordate embryos. It forms from the mesoderm.
The neural plate forms form ectoderm above the notochord. It curves inward, rolling into a neural tube that will become the brain and spinal chord.
Neurulation is the process in which the hollow dorsal nerve chord forms.
Somites are blocks of mesoderm hat are serially arranged along the notochord. They are a sign of segmentation.

~all from the review book!

JFMcL. Good summary of development. Now here is a visual!
Development
Development

http://kvhs.nbed.nb.ca/gallant/biology/animal_embryo_devel.html

RP. There are many different parts of the brain, and each part of the brain is specialized in a task. This chart shows the major lobes of the brain and what they control.
http://hiddentalents.org/brain/jpg/b-left.jpg


MAP
This figure summarizes how the nervous system is broken up. It is from the reveiw book.
nervouss
MAP
When I was going through one of my tests I remembered that what I had trouble remembering the most was which parts of the brain control what. Here is a chart that I constructed summarizing the different parts of the brain and what they control:
Brainstem (made up of medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain)
  • Controls homeostatic functions such as breathing rate
  • Conducts sensory and motor signals between the spinal cord and higher brain centers
  • Regulates arousal and sleep
  • Contains regulatory centers for the respiratory and circulatory systems
Cerebellum
  • Helps coordinate motor, perceptual, and cognitive functions
  • Coordinates muscle actions
Thalamus
  • The main center through which sensory and motor information passes to and from the cerebrum
Hypothalamus
  • Regulates homeostasis
  • Basic survival behaviors such as feeding, fighting, fleeing, reproducing, thermostat, thirst center, and circadian rhythms
  • Regulates hunger and thirst
Cerebrum
  • Has two hemispheres
  • Center of information processing
Cerebral cortex
  • Controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions
Corpus callosum
  • Is a thick band of axons that enables communication between the right and left cortices

EJG
external image Nephron.jpg
http://images.wikia.com/analytical/images/f/fe/Nephron.jpg
The nephron ... I need to review this! The concentrations of the solutes always confuses me.

http://www.pleasanton.k12.ca.us/avhsweb/thiel/apbio/review/images/nephron.jpg
external image nephron.jpg
ABM
Just a quick review of the digestive system
external image 205807_f520.jpg
http://karenandlesley.hubpages.com/hub/Digestive-System---How-Can-I-Keep-It-Healthy

KGT
external image immune.jpg
I had trouble remembering the difference between the different types of immune system responses. This is a simple chart that does a very good job explaining each type.
http://www2.bc.cc.ca.us/bio16/16_adaptive_immune.htm

[SK] On the Bio SAT I got a question wrong on the male reproductive system so here is a summary of the parts and functions of some of structures (or at least ones not obvious) in it:
The direction of sperm from production to ejaculation: SEVEN UP: Seminiferous tubules, epidiymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, (nothing), urethra, penis
Testes: Contains seminiferous tubules where sperm is produced and interstitial cells which produce male sex hormones. The two testes are combined in the scrotum.
Epididymis: Coiled tube where sperm matures and is stored.
Vas deferens: Two tubes which transfer sperm to the urethra.
Seminal vesicles: During ejaculation these two glands secrete into the vas deferens mucus (which is the liquid medium for sperm to travel in), fructose (as energy), and prostaglandins (which stimulate uterine contractions to further help the movement of sperm)
Prostate gland: Secretes a milk alkaline fluid into the urethra which neutralizes the acidity of urine (from previous urination) and the acidity of the vagina

Summarized from a Cliffs Bio review book.

[SK] Following the theme of male reproduction, here is a summary of sperm:
Sperm head: Haploid nucleus which contains 23 chromosomes (in humans). At the tip of the head is the acrosome, a lysosome like organelle surrounding the anterior half of the sperm head. It is used to break down the outer membrane of the ovum, the zone pellucida
Midpiece: Between the head and the tail, this structure contains the typical 9 surrounding and 2 inside microtubule array. It is characterized by mitochondria which supply ATP for flagellar movement.
Tail: Flagellum-like tail propelling the tail by whiplike motion.

Summarized from a Cliffs Bio review book.

[SK] Here is a summary of the digestive system:
Digestion is the chemical breakdown of good into smaller molecules. (Catabolism).
  • Starches are broken down into their monomers, glucose or other simple sugars
  • Proteins are broken down into amino acids
  • Fats (or lipids) are broken down in glycerol and fatty acids or just into smaller lipids
  • Nucleic acids (for those of us eating DNA or RNA) are broken down into nucleotides

Summarized from a Cliffs Bio review book.

[SK] The sequence of events of digestion:
  1. Mouth - Salivary amylase (secreted by salivary glands [which are NOT endocrine glands]) is an enzyme which begins the breakdown of starch into smaller sugars. Chewing in the mouth, plus help from the tongue, help breakdown food into smaller pieces (increasing surface area for greater enzyme effectiveness) and shape it into a ball, or bolus.

  2. Pharynx - Food is swallowed from the mouth and travels down into the throat, or pharynx. The epiglottis, a small flap of tissue, protects the trachea from food and allows it to travel down to the esophagus.

  3. Esophagus - The tube which leads down to the stomach by muscular contractions called peristalsis

  4. Stomach - Place where gastric juice (digestive enzymes and HCl - a very acidic chemical -) is secreted.
  • The stomach functions as a storage container. The walls of the stomach can expand many times.
  • It mixes the food with water and gastric juices to produce a creamy medium called chyme
  • Muscles physically turn the food, breaking it down into smaller pieces.
  • The low pH level also denatures many proteins, the cell binding or cementing substances and bacteria.
  • Second place of chemical breakdown. Proteins are chemically broken down by pepsin, an enzyme activated by the low pH in the stomach (otherwise it is harmless in its inactivated form, pepsinogen). Stomach cells secrete the inactive form. Mucous is also heavily supplied when pepsinogen is released as further protection. Peptic ulcers are produced when the mucous is not enough to protect the lining of the stomach. Movement of chyme is regulated by the pyloric sphincter, a valve at the end of the stomach.

5. Small intestine - The duodenum provides the main area of chemical breakdown. The wall of the SI secretes various enzymes for digestion:
  • proteases - protein digesting enzymes, such as aminopeptidase
  • maltase and lactase for the digestion of sugars
  • phosphatases for the digestion of nucleotides
Other enzymes in the SI come from:
The pancrease: proteases, lipase, pancreatic amylase and other enzymes for digestion are packaged in a basic solution which neutralizes the acidity of the chyme. These enter the duodenum through the pancreatic duct.
The liver: The liver produces bile, which emulsifies fats or the breaking up of fat into smaller fat droplets. This increases surface area increasing the effect of enzymes. Bile is also basic and not an enzyme. Bile is stored in the gallbladder.
The rest of the small intestine (the duodenum is only about 25 cm long) acts as the absorption area for the broken down food. Villi and . microvilli further increase the surface area for absorption. Amino acids and sugars are absorbed into blood capillaries and fatty acids . and glycerol molecules are absorbed into the lymph vessels.

6. Large intestine - Also called colon. Acts in the absorption of water to form solid waste, or feces. Feces are stored in the rectum and excreted through the anus. Harmless bacteria (exhibiting a mutualistic relationship with humans) exist in the large intestine. These produce vitamins, such as vitamin K.

Here are the hormones released which are involved in the digestive process:
  1. Gastrin - produced by cells in the stomach lining, it stimulates other cells of the stomach to produce gastric juices when the original cells detects food nearby. (Positive feedback)
  2. Secretin - released by cells in the duodenum when food arrives. Causes the pancrease to release bicarbonate which acts as a buffer to remove acidity in the chyme.
  3. Cholecystokinin - released by the small intestine which stimulates the gallbladder to release bile and the pancreatic enzymes.

Summarized from a Cliffs Bio review book.


The Transfer of Oxygen from the Atmosphere to a Cell in Animals.

1) The organism inhales gases by contracting their diaphragm.
When the diaphragm contracts and moves lower, the chest cavity enlarges, reducing the pressure outside the lungs. To equalize the pressure, air enters the lungs.

2)Diffusion, the process of transporting a substance from an area of higher concentration to a lower concentration, occurs in the alveoli sacs across the thin membrane that separates the lungs from the Pulmonary Circuit. Simultaneously, CO2 molecules that were attached to bicarbonate ions in the blood diffuse out of the blood and into the lungs. The build up of the CO2 molecules is what causes the animal to exhale.

3) Once the O2 molecules are in the blood stream, they bind to hemoglobin in the bred blood cells which transport them through the blood stream.

4) In the blood stream, the blood cells will travel through a series of chambers and blood vessels. These include the Pulmonary Vein, Left Atrium, Left Ventricle, Aorta, and then to arteries that branch throughout the body. Once the O2 molecule reaches the deoxygenated cell, it will diffuse across the plasma membrane into the cell.

-MSL
SMM.I've been reading through the Animal Maintenance/Homeostasis Review packet and realized that I don't remember some of the specific functions of the more intricate systems.

  • Lymphatic System:

-collects liquids and substances from extracellular fluid and returns them to the general circulatory pathway
-filters out foreign matter, such as bacteria
-serves as main center for antibody production
  • Circulatory System:
-made up of arteries carrying blood away from the heart (arteries=away) , veins carrying blood toward the heart, and capillaries-small vessels connecting arteries to veins
-Blood consists of:
-plasma
-red blood cells: hemoglobin containers & the main transporters of oxygen and carbon dioxide
-leukocytes (white blood cells): phagocytize foreign objects such as bacteria/viruses
-lymphocytes: produce antibodies

Summarized from the Animal Maintenance packet.
SMM.One of the major topics that I still get confused about is mitosis vs. meiosis. I can never remember what happens in what step. This diagram helped me organize my thoughts.external image comparison.gif
http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/images/comparison.gif

TWKI know we covered the Limbic System briefly in class, but while I was looking at the review book I found it confusing.I found these notes at http://www.rahulgladwin.com/noteblog/neurology/notes-on-limbic-system.php and they helped me a lot.

LIMBIC SYSTEM - EMOTIONAL OR SMELL BRAIN
Note: Limbic means "border."
• Emotion, memory, attention, feeding, mating, olfactory.
• Represented by the Papez circuit, which begins and ends in the hippocampus.
General:
Formerly called the rhinencephalon. Limbic lobes consist of limbic cortical tissue sited around the hilum of the cerebral hemispheres (allocortex) associated with the amygdala, cingulate gyrus, certain thalamic nuclei, mammillary bodies of hypothalamus, hippocampus, olfactory bulbs, cingulate and parahippocampal gyri and septal nuclei.
Limbic system ("border"):
Prev: Rhinencephalon ("emotional brain").
Site: Limbic cortex Assoc: Amyg/Cing/subthal nucleus/ mamm bod/hypohtal/hypocamp/olf bulb/septal.
Function:
a. Emotional aspects of behavior and memory.
b. Pleasure and pain.
c. Olfactory.
d. Biol rhyth / sexual behavior.
f. Emotion (rage, fever, motivation).
Associations:
a. Brainstem/hypothal/thal/BG/hypocamp/CC.
Functions:
Chiefly governs emotional aspects of behavior and memory ("emotional brain"). Associated with pleasure and pain sensations. Olfaction, control of biologic rhythms (circadian or diurnal rhythms), sexual behaviour, hunger and emotions (rage, aggression, fear, motivation). Sometimes called the "emotional" brain.
Connections:
1. Hippocampus (ie subiculum, hippocampus and dentate gyrus) is connected to the mammilary bodies by the fornix.
2. Mammilothalamic tract of Vicq d' Azur connects the mammilary body to the thalamic nuclei (stria medullaris thalami) and habenular nucleus.
Anterograde amnesia:
• Bilaterally damaged medial temporal lobes including hippocampus.
• New information cannot be learned.
Korsakoff syndrome:
• Seen in alcoholics with thiamine deficiency.
• Wernike encephalopathy also present.
• Patients make up stories of forgotten past experiences.
Kluver-Bucy syndrome:
• Bilateral lesions in amygdala and hippocampus.
• Aggressive, fearlessness, tendency to orally explore objects, hypersexuality, anterograde amnesia.
Summary:
Limbic system governs emotional aspects of behavior.

ABMThought the acrosomal reaction needed reviewThe Acrosomal Reaction occurs when the head of the sperm contacts the jelly coat of an egg. The acrosome, a specialized vescicle at the tip of the sperm, discharges hydrolytic enzymes, which digest the jelly coat. Molecules of the sperm membrane adhere to receptor proteins on the egg plasma membran, and the egg and sperm plasma membranes fuse
external image 390px-Acrosome_reaction_diagram_en.svg.png
RP. Just in case if anyone is having trouble remembering all the parts to the male and female reproductive system, here's a short quiz that goes over both of them.
http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=male-female-reproductive-system-quiz_1
ELBI was confused about the steps of the excretory system, but this animation cleared it up.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQZaNXNroVY&sns=em

VBG
I can never remember the difference between Meiosis I and II.

Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells.

Meiosis I
Prophase I- Synapsis occurs (each pair of chromatids joins its homologous pair and forms a tetrad) (group of 4 chromatids); Recombination occurs ("crossing over", pieces of tetrad twist around and exchange segments
Metaphase I- Tetrads line up along the equator of the cell
Anaphase I- Non-disjunction occurs- chromosome pairs separate
Telophase I- cells divide and 2 haploid daughter cells are formed

Meiosis II
Prophase II- Chromosomes move toward the middle of the cell
Metaphase II- Chromosomes line up at the equator
Anaphase II- Chromosomes separate into chromatids
Telophase II- both daughter cells divide and 4 haplod cells are formed


JM
The Cerebrum: The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Here is a visual representation of the cortex:
Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
  • Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
  • Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing
  • Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech
The Cerebellum: The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.
The cerebellum is assumed to be much older than the cerebrum, evolutionarily. What do I mean by this? In other words, animals which scientists assume to have evolved prior to humans, for example reptiles, do have developed cerebellums. However, reptiles do not have neocortex. Go here for more discussion of the neocortex or go to the following web site for a more detailed look at evolution of brain structures and intelligence: "Ask the Experts": Evolution and Intelligence
Limbic System: The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old.
This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Here is a visual representation of this system, from a midsagittal view of the human brain:
  • [[javascript:Start('definitions/def-thalamus.html')|Thalamus]]
  • [[javascript:Start('definitions/def-hypothalamus.html')|Hypothalamus]]
  • [[javascript:Start('definitions/def-amygdala.html')|Amygdala]]
  • [[javascript:Start('definitions/def-hippocampus.html')|Hippocampus]]
Brain Stem: Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Scientists say that this is the "simplest" part of human brains because animals' entire brains, such as reptiles (who appear early on the evolutionary scale) resemble our brain stem. Look at a good example of this here.
The brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. Click on the words to learn what these structures do:
  • [[javascript:Start('definitions/def-midbrain.html')|Midbrain]]
  • [[javascript:Start('definitions/def-pons.html')|Pons]]
  • [[javascript:Start('definitions/def-medulla.html')|Medulla]]

http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Structure1.html

RMG
external image 48_05NeuronStructure_L.jpg
So this is the structure of a vertebrate neuron from this website
http://greatneck.k12.ny.us/gnps/shs/dept/science/krauz/bio_h/handouts.html

The neuron is the functional unit of a nervous system composed of a cell body which is composed of a cell body (contains the nucleus and organelles), dendrites (cell extensions that recieve incoming messages from other cells), and axons (transmit messages to other cells). The axon is covered by an insulating fatty myelin sheath that speeds up the rate of impulse tranmission). The synapse is the junction between two neurons( or a neuron and a muscle fiber or gland). Neurotransmitters are chemical messangers released from vesicles in the synaptic terminals into the synapse. They diffuse accross the synapse to bind to receptors effecting a change in the second cell. (see chapter 48 in our books for more information)

RMG
For animal responses to an environment i think that animal behavior (or ethology) is important.
There are innate behaviors: developmentally fixed (unlearned)
- this includes fixed action pattern (FAP): sequence of unlearned acts that is largely unchangeable and usually carried out once initiated; an example is the the male stickleback fish which attacks (the FAP) red objects (sign stimulus).
-kinesis is a simple change in activity in response to a stimulus; taxis is the automatic movement toward or away from that stimulus (think PILLBUG lab with light or dirt variables)
-migration is a complex behavior seen widely inn animals; navigation is the detection of the earth's magnetic field or visual cues
Learning, however, is the modification of behavior based on experiences
-imprinting: intensified by a sensitive period in an organisms life, generally irreversible (think spending time with a baby duck and then them thinking you were his mother)
-habituation: the loss of responsiveness to a stimuli
-associative learning: associate one feature of the environment with another (classical conditioning: involves association with reward or punishment from a certain stimuli) (operant conditioning:involves the association of reward and punishmnent with one of its behaviors)

SAL
This graph is a good way to study the antibodies produced during the first and secondary immune responses.
external image Secondaryresponse.jpeg
http://textbookofbacteriology.net/immune.html


WJH
Cerebellum- coordinates motor, perceptual, and cognitive functions
Thalamus- main center where sensory and motor information pass through
Hypothalamus- regulates homeostasis; basic survival behaviors; thermostat; thirst center; circadian rhythms
Cerebrum- two hemispheres, information processing, extensive in mammals
Cerebral cortex- voluntary movement, cognitive functions
Corpus callosum- enables communication between the right and left cortices
Medulla oblongata & pons & midbrain form the brainstem which controls homeostatic functions such as breathing rate, conducts signals from spinal cord to brain, and regulates arousal & sleep

All of this can be found in the review book!


http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/271/278463/f04_10.gif
http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/271/278463/f04_10.gif

http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/271/278463/f04_10.gif

YC
Here is a little easy review on the respiratory system
http://hes.ucfsd.org/gclaypo/repiratorysys.html
external image humrespsys_1.gif
and here is a more in depth explanation on the respiratory system.
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookrespsys.html

SAL
There have been many good diagrams of the circulatory already posted, but for me I get a better understanding of how it works when I can compare it to other circulatory systems. Heres a good diagram which shows the different circulatory systems in different organisms. The website also gives a very good description of the differences between them.
external image I10-82-circulatory.jpg
http://santasusana.org/pakelly/AP%20Bio/circulation_and_gas_exchange.htm

LJ: I keep getting confused when it comes to the cardiac cycle, blood pressure, and heart rate. (this was taken from the review book)

The cardiac cycle is simply the complete contraction and relaxation of the heart.
The contraction phase= systole
The relaxation phase= diastole
Heart rate is the measure of how many contractions per minute and it is regulated by sympathetic nerve (speed up heart rate) and parasympathetic nerves (slow down heart rate). Additionally, hormones may increase heart rate, as well as temperature.
Then, the stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction.



SAL
When reviewing postive and negative feedback mechanisms, I looked up an example to help me understand more clearly. Heres one good example I found.
external image 1-s2.0-S0065250405380019-gr3.jpg
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065250405380019

TWK
I know what circadian rhythms are, but I do not know enough to write about them if need be.
http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Education/Factsheet_CircadianRhythms.htm
this website presents a lot of information about circadian rhythms that I found helpful.

CCB
Here are some videos with negative feedback examples in the body!
Blood pressure:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQMgV9pkwwA
This video is excellent if you are confused about the endocrine system, at 6:35 it talks about blood glocose levels, at 8:29 it gives the definition of negative feedback, 11:17 talks about water regulation and the kidneys, 14:40 talks more about blood glucose
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0X2vkyRklHE

LJ:
For the animal system project, I did the respiratory system. This website was one of main sources. It explains the different respiratory organs and functions:
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookrespsys.html
In general, the human respiratory system is pretty easy to remember, but its important not to forget that there are other respiratory surfaces (parts of the animal's body where gas is exchanged).

JJS
I have never been able to remember the order of animal development. Not knowing this really hurt me on the last diagnostic test. This chart should help everybody get a quick review.

external image tolp385BIG.jpg

KEY TERMS of ANIMAL SYSTEMS
I believe that these terms are extremely important to know, as they are mainframe vocabulary for the section.
Here are the key terms of animal systems in summary.
You can quiz yourself on the below listed terms and play games with the terms at:
QuizLet Animal Systems Review

Due to the large amount of vocabulary, the link will serve as the list. Click on the link to access the vocabulary

Happy Studying! dancing penguin Pictures, Images and Photos
-WMWoods

[SK] Evolution and classification of organisms, mitosis and meiosis, or nervous system are not that important. The brain and its parts and the immune system are not that important. There will likely be very little on negative and positive feedback, and knowledge of hormones from various animal systems may help.
There was an entire essay on embryonic development and may have been some on the cardiovascular and respiration system (map out the circulatory system).

LJ:
On the exam, I completely blanked on the difference between protostomes and deuterostomes

141993_Protostome_vs_Deuterostome.jpg..jpg